Monday, November 10, 2014

Cleopatra's Needle

I read about Cleopatra’s Needle in the yellowed, foxed pages of the Illustrated London News of 26 January, 1878. A colour plate shows the obelisk in its proposed location at Westminster. It’s an artist’s impression, for Londoners at the time had to make do with a wooden replica erected so that people could get used to the sight.

Colour plates were a rarity for the beautifully illustrated magazine, and would have been a treat for its readers. I struggle to imagine colour pictures being a scarce and wonderful commodity. I cast my mind back to my own childhood, and the cheap reprints of comics in which every second page was in black and white, to save money. Or being stuck with a black and white television well into my teens. (I never knew some old films to be in colour until decades later.) But what impresses nowadays about the News are the engravings. The ‘Needle’ issue features a series from the funeral of Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of unified Italy, and a view of the Pantheon in Rome – my favourite building in the whole world.

Let’s remind ourselves of the obvious: that photography had barely been invented, and the cinema not yet. That there was no television. These images of dead kings lying in state, of overseas palaces and exotic locations which may or may not have belonged to the empire, were all that most people had to rely on to form an impression of the world beyond the likely very small bounds of their direct lived experience. Even London itself would have been exotic for most Britons. Now they were going to erect an ancient obelisk there, and add to the wonder.

In a break with tradition, Cleopatra’s Needle wasn’t stolen: it was donated to Britain by Muhammad Ali Pasha in recognition for the victories against Napoleon in the Battle of the Nile and the Battle of Alexandria, at the turn of the century. However, the Crown wouldn’t pay to transfer it out of Egypt, so there it stayed for another seven decades, until a wealthy surgeon by the name of Erasmus Wilson (‘to whom some token of Royal Favour, or some other public testimonial should presently be offered,’ says the News), came up with the money himself.

This is how they planned to do it. An engineer designed an iron cylinder in which to encase the obelisk. He called it Cleopatra. It had a ‘vertical stem and stern, a rudder, two bilge keels, a mast for balancing sails, and a deck house’. The Cleopatra was going to be towed to Britain by a ship called the Anglia, but it began rolling during a storm in the Bay of Biscay and a boat sent to rescue it capsized. The six men on board all died. A second ship, the Olga, was sent to right the Cleopatra and hopefully tow it to London, and with it went an artist from the News listed as J. Wells. And so the remainder of the journey, along with the meticulous and dull reproduction of captain David Glue’s log, was chronicled in pictorial form for the readers of the magazine.

It was a feat of engineering and capital achieved six years before the establishment of the first British protectorate in Egypt, almost as a prologue to the next expansion of the empire’s reach. In the end they erected the obelisk not near Westminster, but a mile or so down the Embankment, and there I photographed it earlier this year.

The plaques that surround it tell the story of its acquisition and transfer to London. Everything, except what the inscriptions on it mean. And yes, by the way, they still call it Cleopatra’s Needle, in spite of the fact that it was built in 1500 BC, nearly fifteen centuries before Cleopatra was born.

My copy of the News keeps reminds me that it, too, is an object of its time, and the product of contemporary information technologies and their limitations. Those who may wish to purchase copies on thin paper to save on overseas postage are told for instance that ‘their use is not recommended, the appearance of the Engravings being greatly injured by the print at the back showing through’; whereas in the roundup of ‘foreign and colonial news' we are constantly told whether the events have reached the editors via telegram or other means (readers would know how to date them accordingly). Another note reveals the great attention and social significance paid to the mechanics of the transmission of information:
The Queen’s Message to Parliament contained 800 words, and the time occupied in transmission from London to the provinces by Wheatstone instruments varied from four minutes and a half to eight minutes, and by the Morse printer or sounder from seventeen to thirty minutes. The demand for the Speech was greater than on any previous occasion. It was telegraphed to more than 300 newspapers and to nearly 200 clubs and newsrooms.

Unable to play around with graphic elements or font size, advertising relied on repetition and patterned speech for impact.

Whereas chess, comfortingly, looked just the same.

White moves and wins in four moves. See if you can work it out.

I take pleasure in reading these old texts, including the reviews of book I’ll never get to read (Justin McCarthy’s Miss Misanthrope, Chatto and Windus) or plays I’ll never get to see (H.J. Byron’s A Fool and His Money at the Globe), like imaginary works reviewed by Borges. In the periodicals section, I learn that
the January number of the Quarterly Review has two polemical discussions of what Conservative orthodoxy must regard as pernicious tendencies in the fashionable habits of thought upon general topics of intellectual speculation.
And I pretend I knew what it means, or that this was still the way people wrote. For today this cheap, yellowed copy of the Illustrated London News of 26 January, 1878 is my time machine.


Steve Bell said...

The London obelisk itself was created under Thutmose III, but the inscriptions were added some 200 years later, by Rameses II (aka Ozymandias, who, ironically for Shelley, ensured that plenty of the sculptural works of his reign survived!) The needle's inscription commemorate military victories.

Jono said...

Pages of the ILN with New Zealand content have been digitized by the University of Waikato library and area available online. I have spent a lot of time looking at and thinking about the engravings from the first NZ War which include a sketch of the battlefield at Ruapekapeka and images of British soldiers and Maori warriors, an officers hut and a Mann Mortar

Giovanni Tiso said...

There is an archive of all issues from 1842, but it's only available through university accounts. Except for the world war I issues, those I think are free to all-comers.

I had been wondering about the New Zealand content, many of the classic 19th century engravings were commissioned by the magazine.

Giovanni Tiso said...

"aka Ozymandias, who, ironically for Shelley, ensured that plenty of the sculptural works of his reign survived"


Ben Wilson said...

1. Kt-g2 P-c3 (forced)
2. B-e3 P-h6 (forced)
3. Kt-f4 P-h5 (forced)
4. Kt-d3 mate.

...but any path for the Kt to d3 would do. I can count about 8 paths that would have worked identically. There are also 2 paths through to b3 for a very similar mate position. You get those kind of options when you're up by 3 pieces in the end game.

Giovanni Tiso said...

You win... nothing. Other than my deleting your comments signed "fuzzo".

Ben Wilson said...

I win the joy of knowing that chess puzzles used to be soluble. Makes me feel a bit less dumb when I can't solve any of them nowadays.

rob said...

Wonderful piece. Growing up, we had a book called 'The Civil War in Pictures'- all drawings published in newspapers of the time. The idea of an artist with a sketch-pad trudging through mud, camp-life, and pitched battles to turn out illustrations for engraving/etching is other-worldly. The pictures were mostly very very good - yet you knew that the artist had imagined a lot, framed things later from effect, and there was a sameness to the styles of the different artists (I see it in these pics too) which often erased elements of their individuality. Makes one think maybe memory had a different quality before photos - let alone personal video and digital abundance.
(ps - lovely to say hello in person at the TEU conference :) Excuse me if I blathered- had very little sleep!)

Giovanni Tiso said...

Thank you Rob - and it was really nice to finally meet.